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+dnspython [![Build Status](https://travis-ci.org/rthalley/dnspython.svg?branch=master)](https://travis-ci.org/rthalley/dnspython)
+
+## INTRODUCTION
+
+dnspython is a DNS toolkit for Python. It supports almost all record types. It
+can be used for queries, zone transfers, and dynamic updates. It supports TSIG
+authenticated messages and EDNS0.
+
+dnspython provides both high and low level access to DNS. The high level classes
+perform queries for data of a given name, type, and class, and return an answer
+set. The low level classes allow direct manipulation of DNS zones, messages,
+names, and records.
+
+To see a few of the ways dnspython can be used, look in the examples/ directory.
+
+dnspython is a utility to work with DNS, `/etc/hosts` is thus not used. For
+simple forward DNS lookups, better use `socket.gethostbyname()`.
+
+dnspython originated at Nominum where it was developed to facilitate the testing
+of DNS software. Nominum has generously allowed it to be open sourced under a
+BSD-style license, and helps support its future development by continuing to
+employ the author :).
+
+## INSTALLATION
+- Many distributions have dnspython packaged for you, so you should
+  check there first.
+- If you have pip installed, you can do `pip install dnspython`
+- If not just download the source file and unzip it, then run
+  `sudo python setup.py install`
+
+## ABOUT THIS RELEASE
+
+This is dnspython 1.15.0
+
+### New since 1.14.0:
+
+* IDNA 2008 support is now available if the "idna" module has been
+  installed and IDNA 2008 is requested.  The default IDNA behavior is
+  still IDNA 2003.  The new IDNA codec mechanism is currently only
+  useful for direct calls to dns.name.from_text() or
+  dns.name.from_unicode(), but in future releases it will be deployed
+  throughout dnspython, e.g. so that you can read a masterfile with an
+  IDNA 2008 codec in force.
+
+* By default, dns.name.to_unicode() is not strict about which
+  version of IDNA the input complies with.  Strictness can be
+  requested by using one of the strict IDNA codecs.
+
+* The AVC RR is now supported.
+
+### Bugs fixed since 1.14.0:
+
+* Some problems with newlines in various output modes have been
+  addressed.
+
+* dns.name.to_text() now returns text and not bytes on Python 3.x
+
+* Miscellaneous fixes for the Python 2/3 codeline merge.
+
+* Many "lint" fixes after the addition of pylint support.
+
+* The random number generator reseeds after a fork().
+
+### New since 1.13.0:
+
+* CSYNC RRs are now supported.
+
+* `dns/message.py` (`make_query`): Setting any value which implies EDNS will
+  turn on EDNS if `use_edns` has not been specified.
+
+### Bugs fixed since 1.13.0:
+
+* TSIG signature algorithm setting was broken by the Python 2 and Python 3 code
+  line merge.
+
+* A bug in the LOC RR destroyed N/S and E/W distinctions within a degree of the
+  equator or prime merdian respectively.
+
+* Misc. fixes to deal with fallout from the Python 2 & 3 merge.
+  Fixes #156, #157, #158, #159, #160.
+
+* Running with python optimization on caused issues when stripped docstrings
+  were referenced. Fixes #154
+
+* `dns.zone.from_text()` erroneously required the zone to be provided.
+  Fixes #153
+
+### New since 1.12.0:
+
+* Dnspython now uses a single source for Python 2 and Python 3, eliminating the
+  painful merging between the Python 2 and Python 3 branches. Thank you so much
+  to Arthur Gautier for taking on this challenge and making it work! It was a
+  big job!
+
+* Support for Python older than 2.6 dropped.
+
+* Support for Python older than 3.3 dropped.
+
+* Zone origin can be specified as a string.
+
+* A rich string representation for all DNSExceptions.
+
+* setuptools has replaced distutils
+
+* Added support for CAA, CDS, CDNSKEY, EUI48, EUI64, and URI RR types.
+
+* Names now support the pickle protocol.
+
+* Ports can be specified per-nameserver in the stub resolver.
+
+### Bugs fixed since 1.12.0:
+
+* A number of Unicode name bugs have been fixed.
+
+* `resolv.conf` processing now rejects lines with too few tokens.
+
+* NameDicts now keep the max-depth value correct, and update properly.
+
+### New since 1.11.1:
+
+* Added `dns.zone.to_text()`.
+
+* Added support for "options rotate" in `/etc/resolv.conf`.
+
+* `dns.rdtypes.ANY.DNSKEY` now has helpers functions to convert between the
+  numeric form of the flags and a set of human-friendly strings
+
+* The reverse name of an IPv6 mapped IPv4 address is now in the IPv4 reverse
+  namespace.
+
+* The test system can now run the tests without requiring dnspython to be
+  installed.
+
+* Preliminary Elliptic Curve DNSSEC Validation (requires ecdsa module)
+
+### Bugs fixed since 1.11.1:
+
+* dnspython raised an exception when reading a masterfile starting with leading
+  whitespace
+
+* dnspython was affected by a python slicing API bug present on 64-bit windows.
+
+* Unicode escaping was applied at the wrong time.
+
+* RRSIG `to_text()` did not respect the relativize setting.
+
+* APL RRs with zero rdlength were rejected.
+
+* The tokenizer could put back an unescaped token.
+
+* Making a response to a message signed with TSIG was broken.
+
+* The IXFR state machine didn't handle long IXFR diffs.
+
+### New since 1.11.0:
+
+* Nothing
+
+### Bugs fixed since 1.11.0:
+
+* `dns.resolver.Resolver` erroneously referred to `retry_servfail`
+  instead of `self.retry_servfail`.
+
+* `dns.tsigkeyring.to_text()` would fail trying to convert the keyname to text.
+
+* Multi-message TSIGs were broken for algorithms other than HMAC-MD5 because we
+  weren't passing the right digest module to the HMAC code.
+
+* `dns.dnssec._find_candidate_keys()` tried to extract the key from the wrong
+  variable name.
+
+* $GENERATE tests were not backward compatible with python 2.4.
+
+### New since 1.10.0:
+
+* $GENERATE support
+
+* TLSA RR support
+
+* Added set_flags() method to dns.resolver.Resolver
+
+### Bugs fixed since 1.10.0:
+
+* Names with offsets >= 2^14 are no longer added to the compression table.
+
+* The "::" syntax is not used to shorten a single 16-bit section of the text
+  form an IPv6 address.
+
+* Caches are now locked.
+
+* YXDOMAIN is raised if seen by the resolver.
+
+* Empty rdatasets are not printed.
+
+* DNSKEY key tags are no longer assumed to be unique.
+
+### New since 1.9.4:
+
+* Added dns.resolver.LRUCache. In this cache implementation, the cache size is
+  limited to a user-specified number of nodes, and when adding a new node to a
+  full cache the least-recently used node is removed. If you're crawling the web
+  or otherwise doing lots of resolutions and you are using a cache, switching
+  to the LRUCache is recommended.
+
+* `dns.resolver.query()` will try TCP if a UDP response is truncated.
+
+* The python socket module's DNS methods can be now be overridden with
+  implementations that use dnspython's resolver.
+
+* Old DNSSEC types KEY, NXT, and SIG have been removed.
+
+* Whitespace is allowed in SSHFP fingerprints.
+
+* Origin checking in `dns.zone.from_xfr()` can be disabled.
+
+* Trailing junk checking can be disabled.
+
+* A source port can be specified when creating a resolver query.
+
+* All EDNS values may now be specified to `dns.message.make_query()`.
+
+### Bugs fixed since 1.9.4:
+
+* IPv4 and IPv6 address processing is now stricter.
+
+* Bounds checking of slices in rdata wire processing is now more strict, and
+  bounds errors (e.g. we got less data than was expected) now raise
+  `dns.exception.FormError` rather than `IndexError`.
+
+* Specifying a source port without specifying source used to have no effect, but
+  now uses the wildcard address and the specified port.
+
+### New since 1.9.3:
+
+* Nothing.
+
+### Bugs fixed since 1.9.3:
+
+* The rdata `_wire_cmp()` routine now handles relative names.
+
+* The SIG RR implementation was missing `import struct`.
+
+### New since 1.9.2:
+
+* A boolean parameter, `raise_on_no_answer`, has been added to the `query()`
+  methods. In no-error, no-data situations, this parameter determines whether
+  `NoAnswer` should be raised or not. If True, `NoAnswer` is raised. If False,
+  then an `Answer()` object with a None rrset will be returned.
+
+* Resolver `Answer()` objects now have a canonical_name field.
+
+* Rdata now has a `__hash__` method.
+
+### Bugs fixed since 1.9.2:
+
+* Dnspython was erroneously doing case-insensitive comparisons of the names in
+  NSEC and RRSIG RRs.
+
+* We now use `is` and not `==` when testing what section an RR is in.
+
+* The resolver now disallows metaqueries.
+
+### New since 1.9.1:
+
+* Nothing.
+
+### Bugs fixed since 1.9.1:
+
+* The `dns.dnssec` module didn't work at all due to missing imports that escaped
+  detection in testing because the test suite also did the imports. The third
+  time is the charm!
+
+### New since 1.9.0:
+
+* Nothing.
+
+### Bugs fixed since 1.9.0:
+
+* The `dns.dnssec` module didn't work with DSA due to namespace contamination
+  from a "from"-style import.
+
+### New since 1.8.0:
+
+* dnspython now uses `poll()` instead of `select()` when available.
+
+* Basic DNSSEC validation can be done using `dns.dnsec.validate()` and
+  `dns.dnssec.validate_rrsig()` if you have PyCrypto 2.3 or later installed.
+  Complete secure resolution is not yet available.
+
+* Added `key_id()` to the DNSSEC module, which computes the DNSSEC key id of a
+  DNSKEY rdata.
+
+* Added `make_ds()` to the DNSSEC module, which returns the DS RR for a given
+  DNSKEY rdata.
+
+* dnspython now raises an exception if HMAC-SHA284 or HMAC-SHA512 are used with
+  a Python older than 2.5.2. (Older Pythons do not compute the correct value.)
+
+* Symbolic constants are now available for TSIG algorithm names.
+
+### Bugs fixed since 1.8.0
+
+* `dns.resolver.zone_for_name()` didn't handle a query response with a CNAME or
+  DNAME correctly in some cases.
+
+* When specifying rdata types and classes as text, Unicode strings may now be
+  used.
+
+* Hashlib compatibility issues have been fixed.
+
+* `dns.message` now imports `dns.edns`.
+
+* The TSIG algorithm value was passed incorrectly to `use_tsig()` in some cases.
+
+### New since 1.7.1:
+
+* Support for hmac-sha1, hmac-sha224, hmac-sha256, hmac-sha384 and hmac-sha512
+  has been contributed by Kevin Chen.
+
+* The tokenizer's tokens are now Token objects instead of (type, value) tuples.
+
+### Bugs fixed since 1.7.1:
+
+* Escapes in masterfiles now work correctly. Previously they were only working
+  correctly when the text involved was part of a domain name.
+
+* When constructing a DDNS update, if the `present()` method was used with a
+  single rdata, a zero TTL was not added.
+
+* The entropy pool needed locking to be thread safe.
+
+* The entropy pool's reading of `/dev/random` could cause dnspython to block.
+
+* The entropy pool did buffered reads, potentially consuming more randomness
+  than we needed.
+
+* The entropy pool did not seed with high quality randomness on Windows.
+
+* SRV records were compared incorrectly.
+
+* In the e164 query function, the resolver parameter was not used.
+
+### New since 1.7.0:
+
+* Nothing
+
+### Bugs fixed since 1.7.0:
+
+* The 1.7.0 kitting process inadvertently omitted the code for the DLV RR.
+
+* Negative DDNS prerequisites are now handled correctly.
+
+### New since 1.6.0:
+
+* Rdatas now have a `to_digestable()` method, which returns the DNSSEC canonical
+  form of the rdata, suitable for use in signature computations.
+
+* The NSEC3, NSEC3PARAM, DLV, and HIP RR types are now supported.
+
+* An entropy module has been added and is used to randomize query ids.
+
+* EDNS0 options are now supported.
+
+* UDP IXFR is now supported.
+
+* The wire format parser now has a `one_rr_per_rrset` mode, which suppresses the
+  usual coalescing of all RRs of a given type into a single RRset.
+
+* Various helpful DNSSEC-related constants are now defined.
+
+* The resolver's `query()` method now has an optional `source` parameter,
+  allowing the source IP address to be specified.
+
+### Bugs fixed since 1.6.0:
+
+* On Windows, the resolver set the domain incorrectly.
+
+* DS RR parsing only allowed one Base64 chunk.
+
+* TSIG validation didn't always use absolute names.
+
+* `NSEC.to_text()` only printed the last window.
+
+* We did not canonicalize IPv6 addresses before comparing them; we
+  would thus treat equivalent but different textual forms, e.g.
+  "1:00::1" and "1::1" as being non-equivalent.
+
+* If the peer set a TSIG error, we didn't raise an exception.
+
+* Some EDNS bugs in the message code have been fixed (see the ChangeLog
+  for details).
+
+### New since 1.5.0:
+
+* Added dns.inet.is_multicast().
+
+### Bugs fixed since 1.5.0:
+
+* If `select()` raises an exception due to EINTR, we should just `select()`
+  again.
+
+* If the queried address is a multicast address, then don't check that the
+  address of the response is the same as the address queried.
+
+* NAPTR comparisons didn't compare the preference field due to a typo.
+
+* Testing of whether a Windows NIC is enabled now works on Vista thanks to code
+  contributed by Paul Marks.
+
+### New since 1.4.0:
+
+* Answer objects now support more of the python sequence protocol, forwarding
+  the requests to the answer rrset. E.g. `for a in answer` is equivalent to
+  `for a in  answer.rrset`, `answer[i]` is equivalent to `answer.rrset[i]`, and
+  `answer[i:j]` is equivalent to `answer.rrset[i:j]`.
+
+* Making requests using EDNS, including indicating DNSSEC awareness,
+  is now easier. For example, you can now say:
+  `q = dns.message.make_query('www.dnspython.org', 'MX', want_dnssec=True)`
+
+* `dns.query.xfr()` can now be used for IXFR.
+
+* Support has been added for the DHCID, IPSECKEY, and SPF RR types.
+
+* UDP messages from unexpected sources can now be ignored by setting
+  `ignore_unexpected` to True when calling `dns.query.udp`.
+
+### Bugs fixed since 1.4.0:
+
+* If `/etc/resolv.conf` didn't exist, we raised an exception instead of simply
+  using the default resolver configuration.
+
+* In `dns.resolver.Resolver._config_win32_fromkey()`, we were passing the wrong
+  variable to `self._config_win32_search()`.
+
+### New since 1.3.5:
+
+* You can now convert E.164 numbers to/from their ENUM name forms:
+  ```python
+  >>> import dns.e164
+  >>> n = dns.e164.from_e164("+1 555 1212")
+  >>> n
+  <DNS name 2.1.2.1.5.5.5.1.e164.arpa.>
+  >>> dns.e164.to_e164(n)
+  '+15551212'
+  ```
+
+* You can now convert IPv4 and IPv6 address to/from their corresponding DNS
+  reverse map names:
+  ```python
+  >>> import dns.reversename
+  >>> n = dns.reversename.from_address("127.0.0.1")
+  >>> n
+  <DNS name 1.0.0.127.in-addr.arpa.>
+  >>> dns.reversename.to_address(n)
+  '127.0.0.1'
+  ```
+
+* You can now convert between Unicode strings and their IDN ACE form:
+  ```python
+  >>> n = dns.name.from_text(u'les-\u00e9l\u00e8ves.example.')
+  >>> n
+  <DNS name xn--les-lves-50ai.example.>
+  >>> n.to_unicode()
+  u'les-\xe9l\xe8ves.example.'
+  ```
+
+* The origin parameter to `dns.zone.from_text()` and `dns.zone.to_text()` is now
+  optional. If not specified, the origin will be taken from the first $ORIGIN
+  statement in the master file.
+
+* Sanity checking of a zone can be disabled; this is useful when working with
+  files which are zone fragments.
+
+### Bugs fixed since 1.3.5:
+
+* The correct delimiter was not used when retrieving the list of nameservers
+  from the registry in certain versions of windows.
+
+* The floating-point version of latitude and longitude in LOC RRs
+  (`float_latitude` and `float_longitude`) had incorrect signs for south
+  latitudes and west longitudes.
+
+* BIND 8 TTL syntax is now accepted in all TTL-like places (i.e. SOA fields
+  refresh, retry, expire, and minimum; SIG/RRSIG field original_ttl).
+
+* TTLs are now bounds checked when their text form is parsed, and their values
+  must be in the closed interval `[0, 2^31 - 1]`.
+
+### New since 1.3.4:
+
+* In the resolver, if time goes backward a little bit, ignore it.
+
+* `zone_for_name()` has been added to the resolver module. It returns the zone
+  which is authoritative for the specified name, which is handy for dynamic
+  update. E.g.
+
+      import dns.resolver
+      print dns.resolver.zone_for_name('www.dnspython.org')
+
+  will output `"dnspython.org."` and
+  `print dns.resolver.zone_for_name('a.b.c.d.e.f.example.')`
+  will output `"."`.
+
+* The default resolver can be fetched with the `get_default_resolver()` method.
+
+* You can now get the parent (immediate superdomain) of a name by using the
+  `parent()` method.
+
+* `Zone.iterate_rdatasets()` and `Zone.iterate_rdatas()` now have a default
+  rdtype of `dns.rdatatype.ANY` like the documentation says.
+
+* A Dynamic DNS example, ddns.py, has been added.
+
+### New since 1.3.3:
+
+* The source address and port may now be specified when calling
+  `dns.query.{udp,tcp,xfr}`.
+
+* The resolver now does exponential backoff each time it runs through all of the
+  nameservers.
+
+* Rcodes which indicate a nameserver is likely to be a "permanent failure" for a
+  query cause the nameserver to be removed from the mix for that query.
+
+### New since 1.3.2:
+
+* `dns.message.Message.find_rrset()` now uses an index, vastly improving the
+  `from_wire()` performance of large messages such as zone transfers.
+
+* Added `dns.message.make_response()`, which creates a skeletal response for the
+  specified query.
+
+* Added `opcode()` and `set_opcode()` convenience methods to the
+  `dns.message.Message` class. Added the `request_payload` attribute to the
+  Message class.
+
+* The `file` parameter of `dns.name.Name.to_wire()` is now optional; if omitted,
+  the wire form will be returned as the value of the function.
+
+* `dns.zone.from_xfr()` in relativization mode incorrectly set `zone.origin` to
+  the empty name.
+
+* The masterfile parser incorrectly rejected TXT records where a value was not
+  quoted.
+
+### New since 1.3.1:
+
+* The NSEC format doesn't allow specifying types by number, so we shouldn't
+  either. (Using the unknown type format is still OK though.)
+
+* The resolver wasn't catching `dns.exception.Timeout`, so a timeout erroneously
+  caused the whole resolution to fail instead of just going on to the next
+  server.
+
+* The renderer module didn't import random, causing an exception to be raised if
+  a query id wasn't provided when a Renderer was created.
+
+* The conversion of LOC milliseconds values from text to binary was incorrect if
+  the length of the milliseconds string was not 3.
+
+### New since 1.3.0:
+
+* Added support for the SSHFP type.
+
+### New since 1.2.0:
+
+* Added support for new DNSSEC types RRSIG, NSEC, and DNSKEY.
+
+* This release fixes all known bugs.
+
+* See the ChangeLog file for more detailed information on changes since the
+  prior release.
+
+
+## REQUIREMENTS
+
+Python 2.6 or later.
+
+
+## HOME PAGE
+
+For the latest in releases, documentation, and information, visit the dnspython
+home page at http://www.dnspython.org/
+
+
+
+## DOCUMENTATION
+
+Documentation is sparse at the moment. Use pydoc, or read the HTML documentation
+at the dnspython home page, or download the HTML documentation.
+
+
+## BUG REPORTS
+
+Bug reports may be sent to bugs@dnspython.org
+
+
+## MAILING LISTS
+
+A number of mailing lists are available. Visit the dnspython home page to
+subscribe or unsubscribe.