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<h1>Frequently Asked Questions</h1>

<p>Here are some frequently asked questions about ASM, gathered by
  <a href="mailto:m.proctor@bigfoot.com">Mark Proctor</a>.</p>
    
<ul>

<li>
<a href="#Q0">0. How do I start using ASM?</a>
</li>

<li>
<a href="#Q1">1. How do I remove a method/field?</a>
</li>

<li>
<a href="#Q2">2. How do I replace a method/field? I end up with duplicated members!</a>
</li>

<li>
<a href="#Q3">3. How do I make ASM calculate visitMaxs for me?</a>
</li>

<li>
<a href="#Q4">4. Why do I get the [xxx] verifier error?"</a>
</li>

<li>
<a href="#Q5">5. How do I add my bytecode class to the system class loader?</a>
</li>

<li>
<a href="#Q6">6. How do I rename my class?</a>
</li>

<li>
<a href="#Q7">7. How do method descriptors work?</a>
</li>

<li>
<a href="#Q8">8. How can ASM help me create my descriptor types?</a>
</li>

<li>
<a href="#Q9">9. How do I generate Setters and Getters for my class?</a>
</li>

<li>
<a href="#Q10">10. How do I get the bytecode of an existing class?</a>
</li>

<li>
<a href="#Q11">11. How do I generate [some Java code] with ASM?</a>
</li>

<li>
<a href="#Q12">12. How does the [xxx] bytecode instruction work?</a>
</li>

<li>
<a href="#Q13">13. Is ASM thread safe?</a>
</li>

<li>
<a href="#Q14">14. What is the earliest JDK required to use ASM?</a>
</li>

<li>
<a href="#Q15">15. How to resolve conflicts between different ASM API 
    versions available in a global classpath or within the same ClassLoader?</a>
</li>
    
</ul>


<h3>
<a name="Q0"></a>0. How do I start using ASM?</h3>


<p>If you want to use ASM to generate classes from scratch, write a Java source 
file that is representative of the classes you want to generate, compile it(*), and
then run the <a href="#Q10">ASMifier</a> on the compiled class to see the Java source code that 
generates this class with ASM. If you are using Eclipse it is even easier,
thanks to the <a href="../eclipse/bco/index.html">Bytecode Outline</a> plugin.</p>


<p>If you want to use ASM to transform classes, write two Java source files - 
first with and second without features that has to be added or removed and try
to keep other differences as minimal as you can, compile them(*), and then run the 
<a href="#Q10">ASMifier</a> on both of them. Then compare the results with some visual diff tool. 
If you are using Eclipse it is even easier, thanks to the compare tool of the
<a href="../eclipse/bco/index.html">Bytecode Outline</a> plugin.</p>


<p>(*) Note that javac may produce different code for different -target, 
so you'll have to compile for your target environment, repeat that 
excercise for all required target's or use the earliest bytecode version 
if possible.</p>


<h3>
<a name="Q1"></a>1. How do I remove a method/field?</h3>


<p>Use the ClassAdapter and return nothing:</p>

<pre>  public FieldVisitor visitField (String name, ...) {
    if (removeField(name)) {
      // do nothing, in order to remove this field
      return null;
    } else {
      // make the next visitor visit this field, in order to keep it
      return super.visitField(name, ...);
    }
  }</pre>


<h3>
<a name="Q2"></a>2. How do I replace a method/field? I end up with duplicated members!</h3>


<p>You must either return the replacement method/field when you visit the original one using the
ClassAdapter, or you must first remove the original method/field in the ClassAdapter (see
<a href="#Q1">"1. How do I remove a method/field?"</a>), and then add the new method/field
by calling a visit method on the ClassWriter.</p>


<h3>
<a name="Q3"></a>3. How do I make ASM calculate visitMaxs for me?</h3>


<p>When calling the constructor for ClassWriter pass true. You must also
still include the visitMaxs instruction, but the values you give are
ignored, so visitMaxs(0,0) is fine.</p>


<h3>
<a name="Q4"></a>4. Why do I get the [xxx] verifier error?</h3>


<p>If the message given by the JVM class verifier does not help you, you can
use the verifier provided by ASM. For example, if you use a wrong constant when 
making "return" on a method, or if you do not use the appropriate LOAD or STORE
instruction, depending on the local variable type, the JVM class verifier gives
a "Register x contains wrong type" or "Expecting to find x on stack" error which 
does not say anything about the instruction that caused the error. In this case 
you can use the class verifier provided by ASM:</p>


<p>
<code>java -cp "asm.jar;asm-tree.jar;asm-analysis.jar;asm-util.jar"
org.objectweb.asm.util.CheckClassAdapter org/domain/package/YourClass.class</code>
</p>


<p>For example, in the helloworld example in the ASM distribution, if you replace
visitLdc("Hello world!") with visitLdc(new Integer(1234)) you get the following
error message when the generated class is verified as above:</p>


<pre>org.objectweb.asm.tree.analysis.AnalyzerException: Error at instruction 2: Argument 1: expected Ljava/lang/String;, but found I
        at org.objectweb.asm.tree.analysis.Analyzer.analyze(Unknown Source)
        at org.objectweb.asm.util.CheckClassAdapter.main(Unknown Source)
main([Ljava/lang/String;)V
00000 [Ljava/lang/String;.  :     GETSTATIC java/lang/System out Ljava/io/PrintStream;
00001 [Ljava/lang/String;. Ljava/io/PrintStream; :     LDC 1234
00002 [Ljava/lang/String;. Ljava/io/PrintStream;I :     INVOKEVIRTUAL java/io/PrintStream println (Ljava/lang/String;)V
00003 null  :     RETURN</pre>


<p>This shows that the error comes from instruction 2 in method main. The instruction list
shows that this instruction is INVOKEVIRTUAL. It also shows the types of the local variables
and of the operand stack values just before this instruction will be executed (here local
variable 0 contains a String, local variable 1 is not initialized, and the stack contains
a PrintStream and an int). As explained in the error message, the println method called by 
INVOKEVIRTUAL expects a String as first argument, but the stack value corresponding to this
argument is an int. Then either the INVOKEVIRTUAL instruction is wrong, or the instruction
that pushed the integer is wrong.</p>


<p>If your class is so "corrupted" that you cannot read it with a ClassReader, 
try to generate it by using a CheckClassAdapter in front of a ClassWriter:</p>

<pre>  ClassWriter cv = new ClassWriter(true);
  cv = new CheckClassAdapter(cv);
  // generate your class here:
  cv.visit(...);
  ...</pre>

<p>You will probably get an exception which will indicate why your generated class
is incorrect. For example, if you forget to call visit(...) (which can happen if you
forget to call super.visit(...) in a class adapter), the generated class
contains an invalid constant pool index, and ClassReader is unable to read it. If 
you generate your class by using a CheckClassAdapter, as above, you get an
exception "Cannot visit member before visit has been called.", which shows that
you forgot to call the visit method.</p>


<h3>
<a name="Q5"></a>5. How do I add my bytecode class to the system class loader?</h3>


<p>You must first have the security to do this, as defined in the policy
file - there are no security restrictions as default for a standard java
install. Use ClassLoader.defineClass, this however is a "protected" method, so
you must use reflection to gain access to it:</p>

<pre>  private Class loadClass (byte[] b) {
    //override classDefine (as it is protected) and define the class.
    Class clazz = null;
    try {
      ClassLoader loader = ClassLoader.getSystemClassLoader();
      Class cls = Class.forName("java.lang.ClassLoader");
      java.lang.reflect.Method method =
        cls.getDeclaredMethod("defineClass", new Class[] { String.class, byte[].class, int.class, int.class });

      // protected method invocaton
      method.setAccessible(true);
      try {
        Object[] args = new Object[] { className, b, new Integer(0), new Integer(b.length)};
        clazz = (Class) method.invoke(loader, args);
      } finally {
        method.setAccessible(false);
      }
    } catch (Exception e) {
      e.printStackTrace();
      System.exit(1);
    }
    return clazz;
  }</pre>

<p>Alternatively you can create your own ClassLoader by extending the
existing class loader (example needed here).</p>



<h3>
<a name="Q6"></a>6. How do I rename my class?</h3>


<p>It is not enough to rename just the class, you must also rename all the
references to class members using the MethodAdapter.</p>

<pre>class ClassRenamer extends ClassAdapter implements Opcodes {

  private Set oldNames;
  private final String newName;

  public ClassRenamer(ClassVisitor cv, Set oldNames, String newName) {
    super(cv);
    this.oldNames = oldNames;
    this.newName = newName;
  }

  public void visit (int version, int access, String name, String signature, String superName, String[] interfaces) {
    oldNames.add(name);
    cv.visit(version, ACC_PUBLIC, newName, signature, superName, interfaces);
  }

  public MethodVisitor visitMethod (int access, String name, String desc, String signature, String[] exceptions) {
    MethodVisitor mv = cv.visitMethod(access, name, fixDesc(desc), fix(signature), exceptions);
    if (mv != null &amp;&amp; (access &amp; ACC_ABSTRACT) == 0) {
      mv = new MethodRenamer(mv);
    }
    return mv;
  }

  class MethodRenamer extends MethodAdapter {
  
    public MethodRenamer (final MethodVisitor mv) {
      super(mv);
    }

    public void visitTypeInsn (int i, String s) {
      if (oldNames.contains(s)) {
        s = newName;
      }
      mv.visitTypeInsn(i, s);
    }

    public void visitFieldInsn (int opcode, String owner, String name, String desc) {
      if (oldNames.contains(owner)) {
        mv.visitFieldInsn(opcode, newName, name, fix(desc));
      } else {
        mv.visitFieldInsn(opcode, owner, name, fix(desc));
      }
    }

    public void visitMethodInsn (int opcode, String owner, String name, String desc) {
      if (oldNames.contains(owner)) {
        mv.visitMethodInsn(opcode, newName, name, fix(desc));
      } else {
        mv.visitMethodInsn(opcode, owner, name, fix(desc));
      }
    }
  }

  private String fix (String s) {
    if (s != null) {
      Iterator it = oldNames.iterator();
      String name;
      while (it.hasNext()) {
        name = (String) it.next();
        if (s.indexOf(name) != -1) {
          s = desc.replaceAll(name, newName);
        }
      }
    }
    return s;
  }
}</pre>



<h3>
<a name="Q7"></a>7. How do method descriptors work?</h3>


<p>To understand this best it's good to read the source code of Type.java.
Here is a quick overview:</p>

<ul>

<li>Primitive representations:
<ul>

<li>'V' - void</li>

<li>'Z' - boolean</li>

<li>'C' - char</li>

<li>'B' - byte</li>

<li>'S' - short</li>

<li>'I' - int</li>

<li>'F' - float</li>

<li>'J' - long</li>

<li>'D' - double</li>

</ul>

</li>

<li>Class representations:
<ul>

<li>L&lt;class&gt;;</li>

<li>Ljava/io/ObjectOutput;</li>

<li>Ljava/lang/String;</li>

</ul>

</li>

</ul>

<p>Examples:</p>

<ul>

<li>public void method()
<ul>
<li>
<code>cw.visitMethod(ACC_PUBLIC, methodName, "()V", null, null);</code>
</li>
</ul>
</li>

<li>public void method(String s, int i)
<ul>
<li>
<code>cw.visitMethod(ACC_PUBLIC, methodName, "(Ljava/lang/String;I)V", null, null);</code>
</li>
</ul>
</li>

<li>public String method(String s, int i, boolan flag)
<ul>
<li>
<code>cw.visitMethod(ACC_PUBLIC, methodName, "(Ljava/lang/String;IZ)Ljava/lang/String;", null, null);</code>
</li>
</ul>
</li>

</ul>



<h3>
<a name="Q8"></a>8. How can ASM help me create my descriptor types?</h3>


<p>Types.java provides the static method Type.getDescriptor, which takes a
Class as a parameter.</p>

<p>Examples:</p>
<ul>

<li>
<code>String desc = Type.getDescriptor(String.class);</code>
</li>

<li>
<code>String desc = Type.getDescriptor(int.class);</code>
</li>

<li>
<code>String desc = Type.getDescriptor(java.io.ObjectOutput.class);</code>
</li>

</ul>



<h3>
<a name="Q9"></a>9. How do I generate Setters and Getters for my class?</h3>


<p>Use the following code (this assumes that visitMaxs are computed by ASM - see
<a href="#Q3">"3. How do I make ASM calculate visitMaxs for me?"</a>):</p>

<pre>void createSetter (String propertyName, String type, Class c) {
  String methodName = "set" + propertyName.substring(0, 1).toUpperCase() + propertyName.substring(1);
  MethodVisitor mv = cw.visitMethod(ACC_PUBLIC, methodName, "(" + type + ")V", null, null);
  mv.visitVarInsn(ALOAD, 0);
  mv.visitVarInsn(Type.getType(c).getOpcode(ILOAD, 1));
  mv.visitFieldInsn(PUTFIELD, className, propertyName, type);
  mv.visitInsn(RETURN);
  mv.visitMaxs(0, 0);
}

void createGetter (String propertyName, String returnType, Class c) {
  String methodName = "get" + propertyName.substring(0, 1).toUpperCase() + propertyName.substring(1);
  MethodVisitor mv = cw.visitMethod(ACC_PUBLIC, methodName, "()" + returnType, null, null);
  mv.visitVarInsn(ALOAD, 0);
  mv.visitFieldInsn(GETFIELD, internalClassName, propertyName, returnType);
  mv.visitInsn(Type.getType(c).getOpcode(IRETURN));
  mv.visitMaxs(0, 0);
}</pre>



<h3>
<a name="Q10"></a>10. How do I get the bytecode of an existing class?</h3>


<p>If you want the bytecode instructions themselves, use TraceClassVisitor. If you
want the ASM code to generate these bytecode instructions, use ASMifierClassVisitor.
Both classes provide a "main" method to allow them to be
called from the command line, passing your fully qualified class name as a
parameter.
Example:</p>

<p>
<code>java -classpath "asm.jar;asm-util.jar;yourjar.jar"
org.objectweb.asm.util.ASMifierClassVisitor org.domain.package.YourClass</code>
</p>

<p>or</p>

<p>
<code>java -classpath "asm.jar;asm-util.jar"
org.objectweb.asm.util.ASMifierClassVisitor org/domain/package/YourClass.class</code>
</p>

<p>Another, much easier method, if you are using Eclipse, is to use the 
<a href="../eclipse/bco/index.html">Bytecode Outline</a> plugin.</p>


<h3>
<a name="Q11"></a>11. How do I generate [some Java code] with ASM?</h3>


<p>If you want to know how to generate a synchronized block, a try catch
block, a finally statement, or any other Java construct, write the Java code
you want to generate in a temporary class, compile it with javac, and then
use the ASMifierClassVisitor to get the ASM code that will generate this class (see
<a href="#Q10">"10. How do I get the bytecode of an existing class?"</a>).
</p>



<h3>
<a name="Q12"></a>12. How does the [xxx] bytecode instruction work?</h3>


<p>See <a href="http://java.sun.com/docs/books/vmspec/2nd-edition/html/Instructions.doc.html">chapter
6</a> of the Java Virtual Machine Specification.
</p>



<h3>
<a name="Q13"></a>13. Is ASM thread safe?</h3>


<p>The Type and ClassReader classes are thread safe, i.e. several threads can
use a single Type object or a single ClassReader object concurrently without
problems. The ClassWriter and MethodWriter classes are <em>not</em> thread safe,
i.e. a single class cannot be generated by several concurrent threads (but,
of course, several threads can generate distinct classes concurrently, if each
thread uses its own ClassWriter instance). In order to generate a single class
by using several concurrent threads, one should use ClassAdapter and
MethodAdapter instances that delegate to normal ClassWriter and MethodWriter
instances, and whose methods are all synchronized.</p>

<p>More generally, ClassVisitor and MethodVisitor implementations, such as
ClassWriter and ClassAdapter, do not have to be thread safe. However, non thread
safe visitors can be made thread safe just by using a synchronizing class
adapter in front of them.</p>



<h3>
<a name="Q14"></a>14. What is the earliest JDK required to use ASM?</h3>


<p>The org.objectweb.asm package should work with JDK 1.1, or even with JDK 1.0
if Type is not used. Indeed, this package only requires the following JDK classes
and methods:</p>

<ul>
  
<li>in java.io: InputStream, IOException (only in two constructors of
  ClassReader)</li>
  
<li>in java.lang.reflect: Method (only in Type)</li>
  
<li>in java.lang:
    <ul>
      
<li>Object, String, StringBuffer</li>
      
<li>Long, Double, Float, Void, Byte, Boolean ...</li>
      
<li>System.arraycopy</li>
      
<li>ClassLoader.getSystemClassLoader,
      ClassLoader.getSystemResourceAsStream (only in one constructor of
      ClassReader)</li>
    
</ul>
  
</li>

</ul>

<p>The asm.util and asm.tree packages require JDK 1.2, since they use the
List interface and the ArrayList class.
</p>



<h3>
<a name="Q15"></a>15. How to resolve conflicts between different ASM API 
    versions available in a global classpath or within the same ClassLoader?</h3>


<p>Tools and frameworks that are using ASM for bytecode 
processing (e.g. Hibernate, CGLIB, AspectWerkz) should repackage 
ASM code within their own name space. This can be automated with 
<a href="http://tonicsystems.com/products/jarjar/">Jar Jar Links</a> tool.</p>

    
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