The GPhoto project

gPhoto (GNU Photo) is a set of libraries and frontends for previewing, retrieving,
and capturing images from a range of supported digital cameras to your
local harddrive.

(It does support digital cameras based on the USB storage protocol only
indirectly, those can be mounted by Linux directly.)

As of this time gPhoto supports around 700 cameras, listed on:

Contrary to common belief gphoto2 has nothing to do with GNOME. (The gphoto 0.4 version did use gtk.)

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